Your partner in independent health research and socio-economic analyses 

Institute of Applied Economics and Health Research ApS (ApEHR) is an independent organization specialised in:

  • Epidemiology studies, Registry research (real life data), PASS studies, Health Technology Assessments and outcome research
  • Patient reported outcomes measurement and Quality of Life studies (PROM/QoL) 
  • Economic, health economics and societal impact analyses of business and policy
  • Public affairs and communication

We bring intellectual integrity, academic rigor, and a creative approach to developing solutions to our clients' scientific, financial and medical challenges.

  • We conduct studies throughout the life-cycle of a product
  • We access real life data from registries in the Nordic region to analyse clinical practise
  • We apply scientific tools to describe the dynamic development of diseases  
  • We demonstrate how industries can create shared value and affect society through socio-economic impact models
  • We offer a huge network within epidemiology, economics, health research, clinical practise, QoL, PROMs and the pharmaceutical industry 


A need for more careful attention to DAPT for patients with MI not undergoing PCI in Denmark

From 2009 to 2012, there was an increase in the proportion of patients with MI receiving DAPT, and a longer duration of DAPT. Still, a large proportion of patients without PCI are discharged either without DAPT or with a short DAPT duration. Findings from our new study may indicate a need for more careful attention to DAPT for patients with MI not undergoing PCI in Denmark.

Link to publication

Decomposing Inequality in Diabetes Patients’ Morbidity Patterns, Survival and Health Care Usage in Denmark

In collaboration, APEHR and the Centre of Health Economics Research (COHERE) have completed a discussion paper to quantify inequality in diabetes morbidity patterns, survival and health care service usage and understand determinants of these inequalities in relation to socio-demographic and clinical morbidity factors.

Link to publication

Different patterns of Finasteride use in males with prostate hyperplasia across Nordic countries

The Nordic countries Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden have many cross-national similarities regarding political systems and universal tax-financed healthcare systems with full population coverage, but different utilization patterns of Finansteride have been observed in a new study. 

Link to publication

The Diabetes Impact Study in the Danish Media: Every 10th Dane will have Diabetes in 10 Years

The newest publication of the Diabetes Impact Study reveals the dramatic forecasts of the diabetes epidemic. Today, 380,000 Danes have diabetes and this number will increase to 650,000 in 2015 and further 1.2 million people in 2040 according to the forecasts. The costs of diabetes i Denmark amounts up to almost 32 billion DKK every year, where the biggest cost is the productivity loss which amounts up to more than 13 billion DKK.
For further interest in the media coverage, please follow the links below. You can also read the scientific forecast publication in PDF form below.

Link to media coverage: BT & Berlingske
Link to publication

Horizon2020 Info Day on Smart Cities & Communities

ApEHR participated in Horizon2020 Info Day on Smart Cities & Communities. ApEHR can offer its expertise in Innovative Business models and socio-economic-health impact assessment as partner in Lighthouse projects. For further information please follow this link.

The Diabetes Impact Study: Incidence, morbidity, mortality, and prevalence of diabetes in Denmark

In cooperation wih the University of Southern Denmark, APEHR has just published an article as part of the Danish Diabetes Impact Study 2013, where we present trends in the incidence, morbidity, mortality, and prevalence of diabetes in Denmark for the period 2000 through 2011.

Link to publication

Prensentation of Diabetes Impact Study Results on August 20th 2015

On August 20th 2015, APEHR presented the results of the Diabetes Impact Study 2013 together with the Danish Diabetes Association at a press conference. Among other interesting findings, the study showed that the diabetes-related costs of type 1 and type 2 diabetes in Denmark were 31.8 billion DKK/4.8 billion EUR in 2011, furthermore, the attributable costs of complication impacts are increasing significantly and a there is a great productivity loss despite a patient composition with many elderly patients. These results accounts only for the Danish diabetes population, but globally the diabetes situation is most possibly even more critical.

 Prof. Anders Green presenting the results of the Diabetes Impact Study at the press conference on August 20th 2015.
Photo: Claus Bjørn Larsen.

Real World Evidence: Clinical evidence - from the real world

With the Danish parliament in front, Denmark is preparing on becoming the internationally leading country in register- and database research within the health field. Professor and epidemiological scientist, Anders Green, is one of the architects behind the standardized platform on the future clinical cancer databases and tells his perspective on new ways within cancer treatment in Magasinet Perspektiv & debat by Roche (January 2015, no. 19).
Link to publication

Validation of the Danish National Diabetes Register

The Danish National Diabetes Register (NDR) was established in 2006 and builds on data from Danish health registers. We validated the content of NDR, using full information from the NDR and data from the literature.
Link to publication

Prof. Anders Green teaches and speaks at several seminars on cancer, epidemiology, health economics and diabetes

Prof. Anders Green has been invited to teach and speak at different seminars on relevant health topics as epidemiology as a platform for health economics research, costs of diabetes and experiences of cancer in Denmark. 

Green A: ”Experiences from the Danish National Clinical Cancer Database”. Key Symposium on Quality Registers in Medicine, arrangeret af Karolinska Institute og Journal of Internal Medicine, Karolinska Institutet. Stockholm, 8.-9. December 2014.

Green A: ”Multinationale studier i farmako-epidemiologisk forskning. Hvorfor – og hvorfor ikke?” Dansk Selskab for Farmakoepidemiologi, Årsmøde, København, 9. oktober 2014.

”Epidemiological modelling as platform for health economics research – illustrated with Danish registry data on diabetes mellitus”. Forskningsdag arrangeret af Health Economics Research Centre (HERC), Nuffield Department of Public Health, University of Oxford, 22. maj 2014. (Requested).

”Epidemiological modelling applied to health economics - illustrated with data on diabetes and lung cancer”, arrangeret af Center for Health Economics at Gothenburg University (CHEGU) i samarbejde med Akademistatistik og Registercentrum. Göteborg, 28. april 2014. (Requested).

 ”Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) in Denmark: Clinical epidemiological characteristics”. OPEN IBD-seminar, Odense, 20. November 2014.

 “Health Economics; Costs of Diabetes: The Diabetes Impact Study 2013”. Diabetes Academy, Helsingør, 12. November 2014. (Requested).

TænkeTanken at the People's Meeting "Folkemødet 2014" on Bornholm

Prof. Anders Green shares his views on the future's diabetes strategy on the 12th of June 2014, 15.00-17.00. 
Link to official programme

Prof. Anders Green speaks at the 2014 Cancer Conference in Copenhagen

On the 6th of March 2014 The Danish Cancer Society and The Danish Multipisciplinary Cancer groups - hosted a conference to discuss the increasing number of cancer patients which is projected towards 2025.  Is the healthcare system geared and ready for them? The healthcare system will be challenged in terms of resources in diagnoses, treatment, rehabilitation and palliation. 

Link to Prof. Green's presentation

The cancer tsunami in Denmark

The December issue of Perspektiv og Debat puts spotlight on cancer treatment and the expected cancer tsunami in Denmark with analyses on the underlying reasons by Prof. Anders Green from ApEHR and The Danish Cancer Society. 
Link to Perspektiv og Debat

The prospects of Real Word Data

Prof. Anders Green speaks about generation of Real Word Data in lung cancer using databases and registry research in Denmark at a cancer conference on 21st November 2013 organised by Dagens Medicin in Copenhagen. 

Link to Prof. Green's presentation

Diabetes Impact Study 2013

The Danish Diabetes Association (DDA) has initiated an analysis of diabetes related costs in Denmark. To organize and implement the study we collaborate with Institute of Applied Economics and Health Research (ApEHR) and the Centre of Health Economics Research (COHERE), Southern University of Denmark.The study is financially supported by a wide range of commercial companies.


Diabetes is a huge challenge with more than 300.000 Danes having the diagnosis, a number which has doubled during the last ten years and is expected to double again to 600.000 during the following ten years. The economic burden of the disease is huge and will also increase.
The project will build on results from the study: “Socio Economic Impact of Diabetes in Denmark 2006” presented at “Diabetestinget 2008” and originally outlined on data from 2001. ApEHR will together with COHERE update and develop a Danish Epidemiological Diabetes Model as a framework to estimate the return of gained life years and reduced costs on investment in diabetes prevention and treatment.

Since 2001, the available data has improved through the establishment of the National Diabetes Register. At the same time changes in diabetes diagnosis, mortality and disease patterns make it relevant to establish new updated epidemiological profiles and trends together with economic analyzes. These updated estimates are a necessary platform for health economic evaluations of both prevention and treatment in diabetes. This study is a population-based register study that applies a new set of comprehensive data from the national health registers and from Statistics Denmark combined with cost estimates on diabetes patients' resource in the primary and secondary health care sectors.

Study setup and governance
Danish Diabetes Association is the overall Project Coordinator 
ApEHR is the Project Owner 
- A
pEHR and COHERE are the Scientific Investigators 
Supporters include Astra Zeneca/BMS, Bayer, MSD, Novo Nordisk Scandinavia, and Sanofi 
- A steering committee consists of representatives from DDA, ApEHR and COHERE
A reference group consists of the steering committee and representatives from each supporter

DDA and each supporter have a written agreement which will be present at The cooperation of the project is guaranteed its independence by the DDA’s ethical guidelines which are part of the written agreements.

The main deliverables are focused on epidemiology, health economics, socio-economics and forecasts.

Incidence, mortality and prevalence of diabetes by complication group
Explanations behind the increasing prevalence
Forecast models of diabetes prevalence

Attributable cost in the health care sector
Attributable cost in hospital 
Attributable cost in general practice 
Cost for diabetes specific treatments at specialist care level 
Attributable cost for medicines 
Attributable cost given complication status

Socioeconomic status and attributable cost in the health care sector 
Attributable cost of diabetes patients in hospital, general practice and for medicines given
  socioeconomic status (proxy: educational level and income level)

Socioeconomic status and epidemiology
- Incidence risk, prevalence risk and mortality risk given socioeconomic status 
  (proxy: educational level and income level)

Health care costs due to diabetes given different preventive and treatment scenarios
Diabetes implications for inequality in health given different preventive and treatment scenarios

The study is expected to be completed mid 2014 and a newsletter will be issued occasionally until then.
For more information please contact Morten Jakobsen,